Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the practice of optimizing websites to improve their visibility and rankings on search engine results pages. The fundamentals of SEO revolve around several key elements. First, keyword research is crucial to identify relevant terms and phrases that users are searching for. Second, on-page optimization involves optimizing meta tags, headings, and content to align with targeted keywords. Third, off-page optimization includes building high-quality backlinks and establishing a strong online presence through social media and directories. Additionally, website performance and mobile-friendliness are essential for user experience and search engine rankings. SEO also encompasses regular monitoring, analysis, and adjustments to stay ahead in the ever-evolving digital landscape.